of the Entrepreneurial Mindset

Scholarship of the Entrepreneurial Mindset

Entrepreneurial mindset (EM) is an engine of human progress. It always challenges the status quo and can be aimed to improve individual lives and organizational operations. Inspiration and action through an entrepreneurial mindset can invigorate communities and promote health, education, and prosperity.

When combined with engineering skills, EM is beneficial for engineering students as individuals, their communities, their companies, and their nations.

This page features a collection of academic literature connected to this field.

Pursuing scholarship around entrepreneurial mindset can bring significant benefits to your career and institution. This type of research can provide valuable insights into how students can develop the skills and mindset needed to succeed in entrepreneurial endeavors, in any context.

Your scholarship will contribute to the growing body of knowledge in this area. You are invited to conduct more research within engineering education and expand on the work that has already been done.

The Entrepreneurial Continuum

Entrepreneurial mindset and entrepreneurship are connected on a continuum (see Figure A). While there are resources listed that connect in some way to new ventures, business creation, and/or entrepreneurship within higher education, the focus of this page is to highlight research connected to entrepreneurial mindset and entrepreneurial thinking.


Figure A. Rae, D., & Melton, D. E. (2017). Developing an entrepreneurial mindset in US engineering education: an international view of the KEEN project. The Journal of Engineering Entrepreneurship, 7(3).

EU_Swoosh_square.png Download the Entrepreneurial Continuum [PDF]

Title of the document


The references below include research connected to EM within engineering education as well as entrepreneurial thinking within education more broadly. Hover over each entry for additional information.

  • Baron, R. A. (2006). Opportunity recognition as pattern recognition: How entrepreneurs “connect the dots” to identify new business opportunities. Academy of management perspectives, 20(1), 104-119.

  • Bodnar, C. A., & Hixson, C. (2018). Capturing Students' Perception of Entrepreneurial Mindset: Tools for What and Why. Advances in Engineering Education, 7(1), n1.

  • Duval-Couetil, N., Reed-Rhoads, T., & Haghighi, S. (2012). Engineering students and entrepreneurship education: involvement, attitudes and outcomes. International Journal of Engineering Education, 28(2), 425.

  • Grégoire, D. A., Corbett, A. C., & McMullen, J. S. (2011). The cognitive perspective in entrepreneurship: An agenda for future research. Journal of management studies, 48(6), 1443-1477.

  • Haynie, J. M., Shepherd, D., Mosakowski, E., & Earley, P. C. (2010). A situated metacognitive model of the entrepreneurial mindset. Journal of business venturing, 25(2), 217-229.

  • Krueger, N. (2015). Entrepreneurial Education in Practice Part 1: The Entrepreneurial Mindset. Paris: OECD, 6–18.

  • Lackéus, M. (2018). “What is Value?”–A framework for analyzing and facilitating entrepreneurial value creation. Uniped, 41(1), 10-28.

  • London, J. S., Bekki, J. M., Brunhaver, S. R., Carberry, A. R., & McKenna, A. F. (2018). A Framework for Entrepreneurial Mindsets and Behaviors in Undergraduate Engineering Students: Operationalizing the Kern Family Foundation's" 3Cs". Advances in Engineering Education, 7(1), n1.

  • Piperopoulos, P., & Dimov, D. (2015). Burst bubbles or build steam? Entrepreneurship education, entrepreneurial self‐efficacy, and entrepreneurial intentions. Journal of small business management, 53(4), 970-985.

  • Rae, D., & Melton, D. E. (2017). Developing an entrepreneurial mindset in US engineering education: an international view of the KEEN project. The Journal of Engineering Entrepreneurship, 7(3).

  • Sarasvathy, S. D. (2001). Causation and effectuation: Toward a theoretical shift from economic inevitability to entrepreneurial contingency. Academy of management Review, 26(2), 243-263.

  • Shane, S., & Venkataraman, S. (2000). The promise of entrepreneurship as a field of research. Academy of management review, 25(1), 217-226. 

  • Shepherd, D. A., Wennberg, K., Suddaby, R., & Wiklund, J. (2019). What are we explaining? A review and agenda on initiating, engaging, performing, and contextualizing entrepreneurship. Journal of Management, 45(1), 159-196.

  • Wardana, L. W., Narmaditya, B. S., Wibowo, A., Mahendra, A. M., Wibowo, N. A., Harwida, G., & Rohman, A. N. (2020). The impact of entrepreneurship education and students' entrepreneurial mindset: the mediating role of attitude and self-efficacy. Heliyon, 6(9), e04922.

For more references, see the growing body of research at ASEE PEER.


  • Bosman, L., Fernhaber, S., & SpringerLink (Online service). (2018). Teaching the entrepreneurial mindset to engineers. Switzerland: Springer International Publishing.

  • Carsrud, A. L., & Brännback, M. (Eds.). (2009). Understanding the entrepreneurial mind: Opening the black box (Vol. 24). Springer Science & Business Media.

  • Goldberg, D. E., & Somerville, M. (2014). A whole new engineer. The coming revolution in Engineering Education. Douglas MI: Threejoy. 

  • McGrath, R. G., & MacMillan, I. C. (2000). The entrepreneurial mindset: Strategies for continuously creating opportunity in an age of uncertainty (Vol. 284). Harvard Business Press.

  • Rae, D. (2014). Opportunity-centred entrepreneurship. Bloomsbury Publishing

  • Shepherd, D. A., & Patzelt, H. (2018). Entrepreneurial cognition: Exploring the mindset of entrepreneurs. Springer Nature.

  • Walesh, S. G. (2018). Introduction to Creativity and Innovation for Engineers. Pearson Higher Ed

External Validation

Course: How To Do Educational Research [1 Hour]

Faculty from The Ohio State University’s Department of Engineering Education created this free, on-demand course for faculty interested in conducting engineering education research (EER). Completing this course will expose you to EER methods and theory while providing useful activities that can be immediately leveraged in your research.

EU_Swoosh_square.png Access the EER course

Coming Soon

  • Assessment Research and Tools
  • The Scholarship of the 3C’s