What trends, if any, are related to path-loss (distances, obstructions, multi-band systems)? For example, consider T-Mobile’s promotion of WiFi-connected telephone calls. These types of solutions reduce the reliance upon cellular towers, mitigating the large path-losses associated with sparse tower placement. With the prevalence of WiFi, what alternative futures might exist for mobile communications? Connect information from many sources. There is no shortcut to becoming knowledgeable. In preparation for a knowledge-based quiz, read the following six items: • Path-Loss Equations — Read the course text and provide comparisons of the author’s treatment against two additional off-line resources • Newsletter for USAID’s Nepal Economic Agriculture and Trade (NEAT) project • Deloitte report, “What is the impact of mobile telephony on economic growth?” • WIRED Magazine article, “Where Cellular Networks Don’t Exist, Peo- ple Build Their Own” • Mobile Technology Association of Michigan’s eclectic list of “Unusual uses of mobile technology” • An article of your choice, unrelated to wireless communications As outlined in class, create a reflection on how the information in these articles is related to propagation path-loss. Record your three most valuable insights. These will be graded subjectively. Within a group of three, create an opportunity matrix for wireless communications. Form the rows of the matrix by making a list of twenty people groups (e.g. farmers, dentists, soccer fans, painters). Next, form the columns by identifying various wireless solutions, mobile platforms, technologies, features, (e.g. Snapchat, SMS, Peer-to-Peer, Satellite Phones). At each intersection in the matrix, identify how the specific group might benefit from the specific wireless solution. If your group believes a verifiable opportunity has been identified, create a value proposition accompanied by a technical, societal, and economic defense. EML Entrepreneurially Minded Learning EML focuses on identifying unexpected opportunities with verifiable merit. To do that, one must be well informed. Students are encouraged to be explorers, constantly curious, connecting information to gain insights, and always on the lookout for value. Research on both entrepreneurs and intrapreneurs indicates that they often begin an endeavor with an incomplete strategy. [6] Accordingly, EML promotes a tolerance for ambiguity to avoid the “paralysis of analysis” that can sometimes limit action. Within any type of market, stakeholder feedback is essential because it affords the re-evaluation of opportunities. Accordingly, EML assignments promote an understanding of stakeholders. They also afford pivots — information-driven adaptations. Elements of EML are a current topic of investigation within KEEN. Example Assignment Assume the role of an ethnographer and become more curious about wireless communications. (1) Create your personal set of questions and observations about wireless communication. (2) Create a set of questions for others about wireless usage habits, carriers, terrain, tower locations, and other factors that might influence propagation paths. Interview 10 people about their experiences with wireless communications. (3) Become an antenna aficionado. Take a photo of 20 mast- mounted antennas over the next week. In your antennae portfolio, accompany each photo with the GPS coordinates, estimated tower height, frequency, and modulation method. You may wish to verify your estimates with services such as . Prepare for an oral review of the portfolio. (4) Predict trends in the following categories: • Technical, e.g. “What will be the next major technical advance in mobile telecommunications?” • Economic, e.g. “What seemingly unrelated business sector will be next affected by mobile communications?” • Societal, e.g. “What are cultural changes (caused by wireless communications) that have just begun and are likely to continue?” Conclusion Faculty members within KEEN are finding other methods to promote the discovery and identification of opportunities. For example, when converting a PBL assignment to EML, Dr. Andy Gerhart of Lawrence Technological University creates assignments with unexpected design alternatives or “Easter eggs” that, when discovered, allow students to think differently about their design choices. Through these techniques and others, nonlinear design thinking is developed. [7] Out-of-the-box thinking is essential for creating unexpected and extraordinary value. And it becomes habitual only through exercise. Choose to help the engineering education community develop and use EML to foster entrepreneurial mindset. To be successful in a constantly changing world, your graduates need both an entrepreneurial mindset and an excellent skillset. A range of pedagogical methods organized in a stack is an indispensable teaching toolbox. EML emphasizes the 3C’s of entrepreneurial mindset (curiosity, connections, and creating value) and is an essential addition to your stack. Opportunity Matrix References [1] Michael F. Mascolo, “Beyond student- centered and teacher-centered pedagogy: Teaching and learning as guided participation,” Pedagogy and the Human Sciences 1, no. 1 (2009): 3-27. [2] Andreas F. Molisch, Wireless communications. (West Sussex: John Wiley & Sons, 2012). [3] Michael Prince, “Does active learning work? A review of the research.” Journal of Engineering Education Washington 93 (2004): 223–32.  [4] David Boud, Ruth Cohen, and Jane Sampson, “Peer learning in higher education: Learning from and with each other” (New York: Routledge, 2013).  [5] David Boud and Grahame Feletti, “The challenge of problem-based learning” (London: Kogan, 1997).  [6] Saras D. Sarasvathy, “What makes entrepreneurs entrepreneurial?” Social Science Research Network (2008): 1-9. [7] Ehud Kroll and Sridhar S. Condoor, “Aspects of nonlinearity in conceptual design,” International Conference on Engineering Design 2 (2009): 25-34. [8] Michael J. Prince and Richard M. Felder, “Inductive teaching and learning methods: Definitions, comparisons, and research bases,” Journal of Engineering Education Washington 95, no. 2 (2006): 123. PBL Problem-Based Learning Through PBL, students solve an identified problem while determining required information, strategies, and gathering domain knowledge. [5] Students first hone a problem statement, asking, “What is the root problem we are solving?” The method promotes situational curiosity and connected thinking — both elements of inductive learning. Typically, no single solution is uniquely correct. As a result, the pedagogy promotes an important type of thinking for entrepreneurially minded engineers called effectual thinking . [6] Example Assignment A humanitarian organization has decided to develop a wireless communication system in the Nawalparasi District, a small, lowly populated region in Nepal. The goal is to provide mobile communications deemed vital for health monitoring and economic development. There are many design options including tower locations and frequency bands. As the humanitarian organization brokers possible deals between interested cellular companies (e.g. operating at 910MHz), VHF radio link equipment providers (e.g. 145MHz), and the local government officials, it becomes apparent that the tower locations are constrained. If the base-station tower is to be powered by the existing generator, the tower must be located in a low-lying area of Mainaghat. Using provided coordinates and topographical information through freeware such as Radio Mobile, evaluate a general radius of mobile coverage as part of a larger communication plan. What solutions do you recommend to the organization? Provide an example of a characteristic path-loss, comparing the software prediction to a Fresnel model. To complete the assignment, you will need to investigate the terrain of the region, making assumptions about tower height and path-loss limits. 9 8